Peptide Knowledge Center
Research progress of antimicrobial peptides
Antimicrobial peptides are the general terms for peptides that exist in living organisms with antibacterial activity, Is a class of small molecular proteins produced by the parasitifer that can resist infection from outside pathogens, It is an important part of inborn immune system of organism.It has extensive killing activities against fungus, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, etc. Due to the obvirous difference in the mechanism of action between antimicrobial peptides and traditional antibiotics and chemical drugs, Therefore,there has been paid more and more attention for the research and development of peptide drugs.
More than 1500 sequence information of antimicrobial peptides has been obtained from various animals, The sources include insects, mammals, birds, amphibians and fish.Mammals include pigs, cattle, horses, rabbits, macaques and humans.Birds include chicken, Turkey, ostrich, etc.More than 600 amphibians, including tree frogs and snakes;Some fish, shellfish and protozoa also have a variety of antimicrobial peptides in their bodies.
Plant - derived antimicrobial peptides are a class of small molecules synthesized peptide by plants to defend against microbial invasion .
Many kind of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated and purified from various plants, including flowering plants and dicotyledonous plants.
Most plant derived antimicrobial peptides have a good biological activity to against plant pathogens, A part of plant derived -antimicrobial peptides have a strong killing activities against some fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and cancer cells. Compared with animal-derived and microbe-derived antimicrobial peptides, Plant - derived antimicrobial peptides have efficient antifungal activity against fungi.
Microbial source antimicrobial peptides mainly include viral source and bacterial source, Four types of bacteria-derived antimicrobial peptides have been identified: include：Baeitracin, GramicidinS, dobrmectin and lactobacillus.
Antimicrobial peptides can inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria, or kill them, and plays an important role in an organism's natural immune system. Antimicrobial peptides have a killing effect on bacteria, and the bactericidal speed is relatively fast.For example, serpentine and streptococcus lactis have anti-pseudomonas aeruginosa activities. If Ranalexin and Buforin I can be used in combination, they will have a good killing effect on ampicillin resistant staphylococcus. The killing effect of antimicrobial peptides on fungi, for example, sericin has better killing activity against the pathogenic bacteria of aspergillus and fusarium.
Antimicrobial peptides also have the function of antiviral, inhibiting or killing tumor cells, and can deliberately inhibit some tumor cells without any adverse effects on normal cells. Antimicrobial peptides also have a killing effect on parasites, antigens and other parasites, and can effectively kill some parasites in humans and animals.
Antimicrobial peptides play a more important role in the immune system. Some of them can regulate the immune system, induce apoptosis and promote wound healing.
Antimicrobial peptides play a bactericidal or bacteriostatic role by changing the permeability of cell membranes, Some antimicrobial peptides can exert their effects on the structure, function and signal transduction of bacterial intracellular enzymes，Antimicrobial peptides can also act directly on cell walls and mitochondria, causing bacterial death. Antimicrobial peptides are most widely used and have the most development value because of their medicinal value, but there are still some problems to be solved before they used for drugs. The extraction and purification technology of antimicrobial peptides, which directly determines the cost of production and market competitiveness of antimicrobial peptides,another problem is antimicrobial resistance. In general, the use of antimicrobial peptides has an excellent medicinal prospects as a new weapon against drug-resistant microorganisms and other related diseases.,To open up a new horizons for the development of protein drugs.
With the development of genetic engineering technology and chemical synthesis technology, polypeptide antibacterial agents are likely to be a new type of antibacterial and antiviral drugs with high efficiency and low toxicity and no residue.
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