Peptide products :Peptide hormone & Cosmetic peptide
Hormone is a kind of regulatory substance which is produced in organism with little quantity and high effect, and is transported to the action site through body fluid. It can affect the speed of various biochemical reactions in cells. Peptide hormone is a kind of hormone. With the development of protein chemistry and modern separation and analysis technology, many new bioactive skin has been discovered continuously. The research on its structure and function has developed rapidly.
The main basic research in biological science, such as growth and development, cell differentiation, immune defense, tumor lesions, fertility control, and particularly complex brain activities, such as sensation, modality, behavior, sleep, memory, learning and so on, all involve peptide hormones synthesis.
The final proof of the structure of natural active peptide often depends on peptide synthesis. The research of peptide synthesis is to use synthetic method to connect various amino acids in a certain order to form natural peptides with different physiological functions.After the structure of peptide has been proved, the structure may be changed to clarify the role of each amino acid in the expression of biological activity in the composition of the peptide molecule. It is helpful to further study the relationship between the structure and function of the peptide, and to find high-efficiency analogues or antagonists with opposite effects. Therefore, peptide synthesis has become an important way for endogenous drugs to search for new drugs.
After 20 years of rapid development, Omizzur has become an international peptide supplier. Peptide product cover all aspects of from peptide R &D to manufacturing, and can provide a complete set of peptide synthesis reagents.
Here is the most comprehensive introduction about peptide hormones:
Pharmaceutical peptides can be divided into three categories: radioimmunoassay, diagnosis and drug treatment. The field of peptide hormone is very extensive. This paper reviews the following aspects from the perspective of medicine.
Peptide hormone synthesis related to reproduction
Human reproduction is a complex process, which requires coordination and mutual restriction of various links. The central link is the gonad, that is, male testicle and female ovary. Their functions are to produce sperm or egg and generate sex hormones.The whole process is controlled by a series of biochemical substances secreted from organs or tissues higher than gonads, such as the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and brain.
LRH is secreted by the hypothalamus. It is a decapeptide without free amino and carboxyl groups. It is active when it is less than 1 ug.Sequences is P-Glu-His-Try-Ser-Tyr-Glu-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2.It is mainly used in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunction, hypothalamic infertility and secondary amenorrhea.At present, hundreds of LRH analogues have been synthesized, and some of them have biological potency tens or even hundreds of times higher than those of natural products
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone with nine amino acids secreted by the posterior pituitary,sequence is Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2.Its main function is to cause uterine contraction and lactation, clinically used as an induced labor drug,Some new oxytocin analogues were found by changing the disulfide bond in the sequence, which was higher than that of natural products.
Endogenous morphine peptide drugs
Morphine is an excellent analgesic with a long history and still plays an important role in clinical practice. However, its use is limited due to its addiction.Over the decades, thousands of analogues have been synthesized to seek better alternatives, a goal that has only been partially successful.
In1975,Hughes first isolated a peptide with morphine like activity from pig brain, which proved that it was two pentapeptides:Met-enkephalin and enkephalin.Since the discovery of endogenous morphine, the hope of synthesis of oral analgesics without narcotic effect and addiction has been aroused.Enkephalin is very unstable and can be quickly decomposed by enzymes. Endorphins with longer peptide chains are more stable, and this is the only endorphin that is also effective intravenously. But these endorphins, like morphine, also develop drug resistance and addiction.
There are two aspects in the current research. One is to synthesize the analgesic effect without the side effects of morphine adverse reactions. On the other hand, it is to find long-acting drugs for systemic administration.
Blood pressure related peptide drug
There are two kinds of peptides that affect blood pressure changes. One is that they can dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure. This kind of peptide hormone includes VIP(vasogenic intestinal peptide) and braclykinin.
Vasoenteric peptide, a 28 peptide originally found in the small intestine, has the main functions of inhibiting gastric acid secretion, vasodilation, increasing cardiac output and contractility, and has effects on the relaxation of trachea, stomach, gallbladder and muscle.Braclykinin is a kind of nine peptide, which can increase the permeability of capillaries, dilate the vessels of most arterial and vascular systems, increase blood flow, reduce blood pressure, increase heart rate and the strength of myocardial contraction.
The half-life of bracrykinin in blood is very short.In dog and cat blood, its half-life is about 17 seconds. In human body, its hydrolysis inactivation is realized by hydrolase in plasma.
The second blood pressure related peptide is to make blood vessels constrict, increase blood pressure peptides, such as vasopressin and angiotensin. The former is a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary. Vasopressin has two different structures, arginine vasopressin and lysine vasopressin, the difference is in the eighth amino acid.
Vasopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus and countershock,Among the peptide drugs that affect blood pressure changes, the most noticeable one is the peptide of renin angiotensin system. The drugs that affect the system is a new direction of antihypertensive drug research this year.
1.J.C. Hutton, Peptide Hormone Secretion: A Practical Approach, Hull University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-963068-2.
2.Brazeau P,Vale W,Burgus R,et al.Hypothalamic polypeptide that inhibits the seceretion of immunoreactive pituitary gtowth hormone peptide.Science,1973,179(4068):77
3.Edwards WB,Fields CG,Anderson CJ,et al.Generally applicable,convenient solid-phase synthesis and receptor affinities of octreotide analogs.J Med Chem,1994,37(22):3749 For peptide hormone knowledge from Wiki :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptide_hormone
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