Obesity and exenatide
Obesity refers to the increase in body mass due to the increase in the volume of body fat and/or the number of fat cells, or the abnormal increase in the percentage of body fat in body mass, and excessive deposition of fat in some parts. Obesity is a potential risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases and tumors. At the same time, in the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity in China has gradually increased, and the incidence of obesity has become younger, seriously endangering the health of our people. The pathogenesis of obesity is complex. More and more clinical and basic research evidence suggests that obesity is a chronic inflammation and is related to oxidative stress.
Esenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. In the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, GLP-1 receptor agonists can control blood sugar and reduce the body mass of patients at the same time. Anti inflammation and anti-oxidation are important mechanisms for GLP-1 receptor agonists to play a therapeutic role. Similar to other GLP-1 receptor agonists, exenatide has been initially found to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in many studies in cardiovascular system, nervous system and other fields. It can be seen that the pathogenesis of obesity involves inflammation and oxidative stress mechanism, while exenatide has weight-loss, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions
Animal model evaluation
At the 16th week of the experiment, the food intake, body mass and body fat of the mice in each group were recorded, the fasting blood glucose was measured, and the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed. The calculation method of food intake is as follows: weigh the feed when it is put into the feed, and weigh the remaining amount when it is changed each time. The difference between the two is the quality of feed intake, which is converted into the value of energy intake. The body weight of the mice was measured and the time spent in feeding was calculated. The energy value (kcal) of the mouse per unit body mass (kg) in unit time (h) was obtained.
Body fat measurement: The whole body fat, lean tissue, free water and whole body water content of living awake mice were analyzed according to the operation instructions of the animal body fat quantitative analyzer. Body fat percentage (%) is the ratio of body fat weight to body mass. GTT: After fasting overnight, the mice were injected glucose (2 g/kg) intraperitoneally, and the blood glucose levels in the tail vein were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. ITT test: After fasting for 6 hours, mice were injected with recombinant human insulin (0.65 U/kg) intraperitoneally, and blood glucose levels in tail vein were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes
It is speculated from the mechanism that exenatide impurities may be effective for obese patients whose pathogenesis also involves inflammation and oxidation. This study successfully established a diet-induced obesity model in mice, which showed obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, abnormal insulin action, and inflammation and oxidative stress activation. Compared with the model group, the mice in the treatment group treated with exenatide decreased their food intake, increased the phosphorylation ratio of IRS1, and their oxidative stress marker HIF-1 α The relative expression of mRNA decreased, suggesting that exenatide plays a role in weight reduction and glucose fmoc-osu metabolism regulation through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation, thus treating obesity.
It is noteworthy that there is also a certain correlation between inflammation and oxidative stress indicators in this study. Some studies have shown that inflammation and oxidative stress are interrelated in adipose tissue. For example, the intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, which is also related to insulin resistance, can cause adipose tissue inflammation and further induce insulin resistance, and correcting this hypoxia and oxidative stress can reduce the inflammatory status of patients
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